Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) - Five-bar Swordtail

Subspecies in India

(1) Graphium antiphates naira (Moore, [1903]) – Sahyadri Five-bar Swordtail
(2) Graphium antiphates nebulosus (Butler, 1881) – Himalayan Five-bar Swordtail

Taxonomic Information

Various names have been applied to the Indian subspecies of Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) in the past. The Western Ghats populations have been referred to by some as Graphium antiphates alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787), and the Himalayan populations have been referred to by the name Graphium antiphates pompilius (Fabricius, 1787). Based on historical records of butterfly trade in China and India and by comparing syntypes of pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) with specimens from mainland Asia, Cotton et al. (2019) suggested that alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787) should represent populations in the Malay Peninsula, and that pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) is a synonym of antiphates (Cramer, [1775]). They also suggested that the correct and valid name of the Western Ghats subspecies is naira (Moore, [1903]) and that of the Himalayan and NE Indian subspecies is nebulosus (Butler, 1881). We have always used the name naira (Moore, [1903]) for the Western Ghats, and the change from pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) to nebulosus (Butler, 1881) has also been implemented on image text.

Conservation and Special status

This species is not legally protected in India under any schedules of WildLife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Photo Gallery and Species Biology

StateJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNo date
Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT
Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh122111
Assam11464111
Bihar
Chandigarh
Chhattisgarh
Dadra & Nagar Haveli UT
Daman & Diu UT
Delhi
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir UT
Jharkhand
Karnataka2191
Kerala832211
Ladakh UT
Lakshadweep
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Manipur
Meghalaya141
Mizoram14
Nagaland
Odisha1
Puducherry UT
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh1
Uttarakhand
West Bengal231
Total11520216312331

Desmos chinensis, Miliusa (Annonaceae), Magnolia doltsopa (Magnoliaceae).

Key Reference: Nitin, R., V. C. Balakrishnan, P. V. Churi, S. Kalesh, S. Prakash, and K. Kunte. 2018. Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10:11495–11550.

For the complete list of larval host plants of Indian butterflies, see the page on larval host plants.
 

Cotton, A. M., J. Robinson, and Y. Inayoshi. 2019. Taxonomic implications resulting from examination of the syntypes of Papilio pompilius Fabricius, 1787 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Butterflies (Teinopalpus), 81:48–55.
 

Page citation

Mazumder, S., and K. Kunte 2023. Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) – Five-bar Swordtail. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 4.12. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/graphium-antiphates, accessed 2023/06/02.